Google's New Open Source LLMs: Gemma-2-9b and Gemma-2-27b

Google has just released 2 Open Source LLMs: gemma-2-9b and gemma-2-27b, Let's take a look!

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Google's New Open Source LLMs: Gemma-2-9b and Gemma-2-27b

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Introduction to Gemma 2

Google's release of Gemma 2 marks a significant milestone in the world of open-source language models. As the latest addition to Google's family of state-of-the-art open Large Language Models (LLMs), Gemma 2 represents a leap forward in both performance and efficiency. This article delves into the intricacies of Gemma 2, exploring its training methodology, benchmarks, evaluation, and practical applications.

The Training Process of Gemma 2

Data Curation for Gemma 2

The foundation of Gemma 2's impressive capabilities lies in its extensive training data. Google has significantly expanded the training corpus for Gemma 2, utilizing approximately twice the amount of data compared to its predecessors. The 27B version of Gemma 2 was trained on a staggering 13 trillion tokens, while the 9B version utilized 8 trillion tokens. This massive dataset primarily consists of web content in English, supplemented with substantial amounts of code and mathematical text.

The diversity and quality of this training data play a crucial role in Gemma 2's ability to understand and generate human-like text across a wide range of topics and domains. By incorporating code and mathematical content, Gemma 2 has also developed strong capabilities in technical and scientific areas, making it a versatile tool for various applications.

Architectural Innovations in Gemma 2

Gemma 2's architecture incorporates several cutting-edge techniques that contribute to its exceptional performance:

Sliding Window Attention: This technique allows Gemma 2 to process long sequences of text more efficiently by focusing on local context within a sliding window, while still maintaining the ability to capture long-range dependencies.

Logit Soft-Capping: By implementing logit soft-capping, Gemma 2 prevents the model's outputs from becoming excessively confident or extreme, leading to more balanced and nuanced responses.

Knowledge Distillation: For the 9B model, knowledge distillation techniques were employed to transfer knowledge from larger, more powerful models, allowing the smaller model to achieve impressive performance despite its reduced size.

Model Merging: Advanced model merging techniques, including WARP (Weighted Agreement for Reinforcement Policy), were used to combine the strengths of multiple models, resulting in a more robust and capable final model.

Training Infrastructure for Gemma 2

The development of Gemma 2 leveraged Google's advanced computing infrastructure:

  • The 27B model was trained on TPU v5p, Google's latest and most powerful Tensor Processing Units.
  • The 9B model utilized TPU v4 for training.
  • The training process employed JAX, a high-performance numerical computing library, and ML Pathways, Google's machine learning framework.

This state-of-the-art infrastructure allowed for efficient training of these large-scale models, enabling Google to push the boundaries of what's possible with open-source language models.

Fine-tuning Strategies for Gemma 2

To optimize Gemma 2 for real-world applications, particularly in dialogue and instruction-following scenarios, Google implemented a multi-faceted fine-tuning approach:

Supervised Fine-Tuning (SFT): This traditional approach uses high-quality, human-curated datasets to refine the model's outputs.

Distillation from Larger Models: Knowledge from more powerful, proprietary models was distilled into Gemma 2, enhancing its capabilities.

Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF): This technique uses human preferences to guide the model towards generating more desirable outputs.

Model Merging with WARP: By combining multiple fine-tuned versions of the model, WARP helps create a more robust and well-rounded final model.

Benchmarking Gemma 2

Evaluation of Gemma 2 on LMSYS CHatbot Arena
Evaluation of Gemma 2 on LMSYS CHatbot Arena

Comparative Performance of Gemma 2

Gemma 2's performance on standard benchmarks has been nothing short of impressive, often surpassing models with significantly larger parameter counts. Here's a detailed look at how Gemma 2 stacks up against other popular open-source models:

Gemma 2 27B vs. Larger Models

Benchmark Gemma 2 (27B) Llama 3 (70B) Qwen 1.5 (32B)
MMLU 75.2 79.2 74.3
GSM8K 75.1 76.9 61.1
ARC-c 71.4 68.8 63.6
HellaSwag 86.4 88.0 85.0
Winogrande 83.7 85.3 81.5

These results demonstrate that Gemma 2 27B is highly competitive with models that have more than twice its parameter count, showcasing its efficiency and the effectiveness of its training process.

Gemma 2 9B vs. Similar-Sized Models

Benchmark Gemma 2 (9B) Mistral (7B) Llama 3 (8B)
MMLU 71.3 62.5 66.6
GSM8K 62.3 34.5 45.7
ARC-C 68.4 60.5 59.2
HellaSwag 81.9 83.0 82.0
Winogrande 80.6 78.5 78.5

The 9B version of Gemma 2 shows remarkable performance for its size, outperforming similarly-sized models across most benchmarks. This is particularly evident in tasks requiring reasoning and knowledge application, such as MMLU and GSM8K.

Interpreting Gemma 2's Benchmark Results

The strong performance of Gemma 2 across these benchmarks highlights several key points:

Efficiency: Gemma 2 achieves competitive or superior results with fewer parameters, indicating a more efficient use of model capacity.

Versatility: The model performs well across a diverse set of tasks, from multi-task language understanding (MMLU) to common sense reasoning (Winogrande).

Reasoning Capabilities: Particularly noteworthy is Gemma 2's performance on GSM8K, a benchmark for grade school math problems, suggesting strong logical reasoning abilities.

Language Understanding: High scores on HellaSwag and ARC-c demonstrate Gemma 2's proficiency in understanding context and making inferences.

These benchmarks provide a quantitative measure of Gemma 2's capabilities, but it's important to note that real-world performance can vary based on specific use cases and implementations.

Evaluation Methodologies for Gemma 2

Academic Benchmark Evaluation of Gemma 2

As illustrated in the benchmark comparisons, Gemma 2 has undergone rigorous testing using standard NLP benchmarks. These academic benchmarks provide a standardized way to compare models across different architectures and sizes. They cover a wide range of language understanding and generation tasks, offering insights into various aspects of the model's capabilities:

  • MMLU (Massive Multitask Language Understanding): Tests the model's ability to perform on a wide range of academic subjects.
  • GSM8K (Grade School Math 8K): Evaluates mathematical reasoning and problem-solving skills.
  • ARC-c (AI2 Reasoning Challenge): Assesses the model's ability to answer grade-school science questions.
  • HellaSwag: Measures common sense inference and situational understanding.
  • Winogrande: Tests for common sense reasoning and coreference resolution.

Human Evaluation of Gemma 2

Beyond automated benchmarks, Gemma 2 has undergone extensive human evaluation:

LMSYS Chatbot Arena: In this platform, Gemma 2 27B was subjected to blind side-by-side evaluations against other leading models, including much larger ones like Llama 3 70B and Nemotron-4-340B. Human raters compared the outputs, assessing factors such as coherence, relevance, and overall quality of responses.

Red Team Testing: Google employed manual red-teaming techniques, where experts attempted to probe the model for weaknesses, biases, or potentially harmful outputs. This process helps identify areas for improvement and ensures the model behaves ethically across a wide range of scenarios.

Safety and Ethical Considerations in Gemma 2

Ensuring the safe and ethical behavior of AI models is paramount, and Gemma 2 has undergone rigorous testing in this regard:

Automated Adversarial Testing: Specialized algorithms were used to generate challenging inputs designed to test the model's robustness against potential misuse or unintended behaviors.

Bias and Fairness Evaluations: The model was assessed for potential biases across different demographic groups and topics to ensure fair and equitable performance.

Content Filtering: Mechanisms were implemented to prevent the generation of harmful or inappropriate content, striking a balance between utility and safety.

Multilingual Capabilities of Gemma 2

An unexpected strength of Gemma 2 has been its performance in languages beyond English:

Low-Resource Language Competence: Despite being primarily trained on English data, Gemma 2 has shown surprising proficiency in languages like Slovenian and Uzbek. This suggests that the model has developed a deep understanding of linguistic structures that can generalize across languages.

Translation and Cross-lingual Tasks: Evaluations have been conducted to assess Gemma 2's ability to perform translation tasks and answer questions in multiple languages, providing insights into its potential for multilingual applications.

Comparative Analysis: The model's performance in non-English languages has been compared to specialized multilingual models to gauge its effectiveness in diverse linguistic contexts.

Practical Applications of Gemma 2

Running Gemma 2 with Ollama

How to Run Gemma 2 Locally with Ollama
How to Run Gemma 2 Locally with Ollama

Ollama provides a straightforward way to run Gemma 2 locally, making it accessible for developers and researchers. Here's a step-by-step guide to getting started with Gemma 2 using Ollama:


  • Download and install Ollama from the official website.
  • Ensure you have the latest version (0.1.47 or later) to support Gemma 2.

Running Gemma 2:

  • Open a terminal or command prompt.
  • For the 9B model, use the command: ollama run gemma2
  • For the 27B model, use: ollama run gemma2:27b

Interacting with the Model:

  • Once loaded, you can start typing prompts directly into the terminal.
  • The model will generate responses based on your inputs.

Integration with Popular Frameworks:
Gemma 2 can be easily integrated into various AI/ML frameworks. Here are examples using LangChain and LlamaIndex:


from langchain_community.llms import Ollama

llm = Ollama(model="gemma2")
response = llm.invoke("Explain the concept of quantum entanglement.")


from llama_index.llms.ollama import Ollama

llm = Ollama(model="gemma2")
response = llm.complete("Describe the impact of artificial intelligence on modern healthcare.")

Here's a revised section on how to prompt Gemma 2:

How to Prompt Gemma 2

Gemma 2 comes in base and instruction-tuned variants. The base models have no specific prompt format, while the instruction-tuned versions use a simple conversation structure. Here are some guidelines for prompting Gemma 2 effectively:

Base Models (gemma-2-9b and gemma-2-27b)

For base models, you can simply provide input text and the model will generate a continuation. These models are suitable for:

  • Open-ended text generation
  • Zero-shot or few-shot inference tasks


Input: The benefits of exercise include
Output: improved cardiovascular health, increased muscle strength and endurance, better weight management, reduced risk of chronic diseases, enhanced mental health and mood, improved sleep quality, increased energy levels, and better cognitive function. Regular physical activity can also help maintain bone density, improve balance and coordination, boost the immune system, and promote longevity.

Instruction-Tuned Models (gemma-2-9b-it and gemma-2-27b-it)

The instruction-tuned versions use a specific conversation format:

[Your prompt or question here]<end_of_turn>
[Model's response here]<end_of_turn>


Explain the concept of quantum entanglement in simple terms.<end_of_turn>
Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon in quantum physics where two or more particles become connected in such a way that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the others, even when the particles are separated by a large distance. Here's a simple analogy to help understand this concept:

Imagine you have two coins in a box, and when you shake the box, the coins always land in opposite states - if one is heads, the other is always tails, and vice versa. Now, imagine separating these coins and sending them to opposite ends of the universe. When you look at one coin, you instantly know the state of the other coin, no matter how far apart they are. This instantaneous connection between the two coins is similar to quantum entanglement.

In reality, quantum entanglement involves properties like spin, polarization, or momentum of particles. When particles are entangled, measuring the state of one particle immediately affects the state of its entangled partner, regardless of the distance between them. This phenomenon is what Einstein famously called "spooky action at a distance."

Quantum entanglement is a key principle in quantum computing and quantum communication, and it challenges our classical understanding of physics and the nature of reality.<end_of_turn>

Tips for Effective Prompting

  1. Be specific: Clearly state your task or question.
  2. Provide context: Give relevant background information when necessary.
  3. Use examples: For complex tasks, provide examples of desired input and output.
  4. Break down complex tasks: For multi-step problems, consider breaking them into smaller, manageable prompts.
  5. Experiment with different phrasings: If you're not getting the desired output, try rephrasing your prompt.
  6. Leverage the model's strengths: Gemma 2 excels at tasks like text generation, summarization, and question-answering.

Remember, while Gemma 2 is powerful, it's important to verify important information and use the model responsibly.

Conclusion: The Future with Gemma 2

Gemma 2 represents a significant advancement in the field of open-source language models. Its impressive performance, efficiency, and versatility make it a valuable tool for researchers, developers, and businesses alike. As the AI community continues to explore and expand upon Gemma 2's capabilities, we can expect to see innovative applications and further improvements in natural language processing technologies.

The release of Gemma 2 under an open and permissive license also contributes to the democratization of AI, allowing a wider range of individuals and organizations to benefit from and contribute to the development of advanced language models. As we move forward, the insights gained from Gemma 2 will undoubtedly influence the next generation of language models, pushing the boundaries of what's possible in artificial intelligence and natural language processing.

Want to try out Claude 3.5 Sonnet Now?

Searching for an AI Platform that gives you access to any AI Model with an All-in-One price tag?

Then, You cannot miss out Anakin AI!

Anakin AI is an all-in-one platform for all your workflow automation, create powerful AI App with an easy-to-use No Code App Builder, with Llama 3, Claude, GPT-4, Uncensored LLMs, Stable Diffusion...

Build Your Dream AI App within minutes, not weeks with Anakin AI!